selenium interview questions 2019

It provided the native WebDriver API interface replacing the old client-server API model. Let’s now see how are they different from each other. It sets the current window in the maximized state. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Getting Started with Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning, Machine Learning with TensorFlow on Google Cloud Platform, Internet of Things (IOT) - From Beginner to Expert, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) using UiPath, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) with Automation Anywhere, Google Cloud Fundamentals: Core Infrastructure, Introduction to Microsoft Azure for IT Professionals, Developing Solutions for Microsoft Azure (AZ-203), Data Engineering on Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure Infrastructure and Deployment (AZ-100) Training, Microsoft Azure Integration and Security (AZ-101), Microsoft Azure Architect Technologies (AZ-300), Microsoft Azure Architect Design (AZ-301), Containers, Kubernetes, and Red Hat OpenShift Administration I DO285, Blockchain & Cryptocurrencies Fundamentals, SCOM (System Center Operations Manager) 2012, Architecting with Google Cloud Platform: Design and Process, Architecting with Google Kubernetes Engine, Implementing an Azure Data Solution (DP-200T01), Designing an Azure Data Solution (DP-201T01), Core Solutions Of Microsoft Exchange Server 2013, IBM Storwize V7000 Implementation Workshop (SSE1G), IBM Spectrum Protect 8.1.2 Implementation and Administration (TS616G), WebSphere Application Server V9 Administration (WA590G), Creating, Publishing, and Securing APIs with IBM API Connect (WD508G), Administration of IBM DataPower Gateway V7.6 (WE761G), IBM MQ V9 System Administration (using Linux for labs) (WM154G), IBM Access Manager Platform Foundations (TW107G), Oracle Database 12c R2: Administration Workshop Ed 3, Exadata Database Machine: 12c Administration Workshop Ed 2, Business Intelligence on Oracle Analytics Cloud, Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning Ed 1, Oracle Database 12c R2: Introduction to SQL Ed 2, Oracle WebLogic Server 12c: Administration I Ed 2, Oracle BI 12c: Create Analyses and Dashboards Ed 1, Oracle Database 12c R2: Backup and Recovery Workshop Ed 3, Oracle Database 12c R2: Program with PL/SQL Ed 2, Automation with Ansible II: Ansible Tower DO409, Automation with Ansible & Ansible Tower DO410, Introduction to Containers, Kubernetes, and Red Hat OpenShift DO180, Red Hat OpenShift Development I: Containerizing Applications DO288, Red Hat OpenStack Administration II CL210, Symmetrix VMAX Business Continuity Management, VMAX All Flash and VMAX3 Configuration Management, VCE Vblock Systems Administration & Management, VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage [6.7], vCloud Director: Install, Configurationure, Manage, Anypoint Platform Development: Fundamentals (Mule 4), Anypoint Platform Development: Mule 4 for Mule 3 Users, Anypoint Platform Architecture: Integration Solutions, Flying Car and Autonomous Flight Engineer, Mastering Bots: Design and Build an Advanced Digital Workforce, Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Certification, Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO) Certification, EC-Council Certified Security Analyst (ECSA): Penetration Testing, Certified Chief Information Security Officer (CCISO v3), ArcSight Management Center Administration and Operations 2.1, Service Manager 9.x Foundations for Process Owners, Lightbend Reactive Architecture - Professional, Blockchain Overview : Business Foundations, Android Applications UI/UX Design and Monetization Techniques, [Connect L&D Conclave]Why LMS and How to Evaluate and Choose One, Top 9 Programming Languages to Learn this 2018, Top 25 Spring Interview Questions And Answers 2018, Selenium IDE (Selenium Integrated Development Environment), Testing windows application and mobile application is not possible, It is tough to handle page load, captcha, pop up windows and dynamic elements, A beginners response: ‘No, I have not created any framework from the scratch. Instead of using the TestNG reporting, we preferred the Extent report. We can use Selenium to write automation scripts for testing web applications. 2. It means we can run three instances of both Firefox and IE at the same time. Which is the fastest WebDriver implementation? It works by navigating through the DOM elements and attributes to locate the target object. We can use the below syntax to access elements using ID as the CSS selector. # We follow this approach as it can work with any browser instance. Automation testing refers to the process by which an application or software is tested with the help of an automation testing tool in order to identify the defects. After creating multi-machine nodes, we can use it to distribute tests and execute them. Use XPath as an array by appending the square brackets with an index. Every keyword either maps to an action or an object. Let’s understand the difference with clarity. You can receive regular and timely updates on Selenium by following us on (Facebook/Twitter). All rights reserved, Certified ScrumMaster ® (CSM) and Certified Scrum Trainer ® (CST) are registered trademarks of SCRUM ALLIANCE ®, Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates, CompTIA, CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+, CompTIA Security+, and CompTIA Server+ are registered trademarks of the Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA). Then, the idea is to switch off the SSL setting and ignore the SSL error. However, if it doesn’t succeed, then try out the below code. These sample questions are framed by experts from Intellipaat who train for Selenium Training to give you an idea of the type of questions asked in interviews. Selenium supports different language like ruby, java, python C#, etc. Thank you for getting in touch. In KDF, there happens to be a table of keywords. Sharing is caring! Required fields are marked *, 212, Palm Avenue, Green Glen Layout, Where your source code/project lie and how you integrate with Jenkins? All Rights Reserved. test-driven design is a software development paradigm that proposes to conduct unit testing frequently on the source code. As you might already know, Manual testing consumes too much time and also tends to get tedious and filled with errors. On the contrary, the navigate method tracks the history and can perform operations like refresh, back, and forward. What are some of the advantages of Automation Testing? 3. It signals Selenium to interpret this function as a command. The above expression would match all values of the category attribute having the word ‘tablet’ in them. 04/03/2019. TestNG doesn’t enforce a class to extend. The data provider is a TestNG annotation. Ans: Selenium is one of the most powerful open source automation tool for web application testing (even we can say acceptance testing for the web application) which lets you automate operations like — type, click, the selection from a drop down etc of a web page. It captures the functionality as functions and objects as members. In this process, automation tools automatically executes the test scripts and generates the results. This is where Selenium comes into picture. The below points discuss why WebDriver is better than the RC. Syntax: For example, it can detect broken links on a page, check the presence of a web element, Ajax, JavaScript alerts, and a lot more. In today’s digital era, there is a lot of dependency on the web. This necessitates the need for updated and well-functioning web applications. Selenium Grid is a tool that is used along with Selenium RC for running multiple tests on various machines against various browsers and operating systems at the same time. It performs this with the help of a browser specific driver and controls the driver by communicating directly with it. Suppose, we have created a test case that can throw an exception. About myself and the project? TestNG allows grouping of tests, whereas JUnit doesn’t. 1500 Plus Selenium Interview Questions (Includes questions on Selenium, Java, Cucumber, TestNG and other topics) What is Selenium and what are the different components and versions of Selenium? In the internet explorer, it is somewhat trivial to ignore the SSL error. Since it’s relatively a less talked topic, so we tried hard to come up with the most relevant questions. Selenium provides the click() function to click on a HTML link. Please try again later. It provides concurrency. Contact us for Selenium Interview Preparation sessions. We will get back to you shortly. This is needed particularly when there is are lots of regression test cases. 15. Our Selenium with Python Interview Questions and Answers are prepared by 10+ years experience professionals. BDD follows most of the principles of TDD but replaces its unit-centric approach with a domain-centric design. Hence, it is mandatory to pass the HTTP or HTTPS protocol while calling the web driver’s get() method. However, the following approaches can help. 1) navigate().forward() – to move to the next web page as per the browser’s history Selenium Grid can have multiple nodes. 1. Following is the list of supported locators by Selenium. 4) navigate().to(“URL”) – to start a new browser window and opening up the specified link. If the requirement is to run the “Sanity” tests, then we can configure TestNG to execute the tests under the “Sanity” group. And our team had reviewed every answer a no. I would like to use the Selenium Automation Testing tool for the below reasons. Here are some of the problems that testers usually face while doing automation with Selenium. In JUnit, we start by declaring the @BeforeClass and @AfterClass. Selenium provides Enum Key macros to simulate the enter action. This is used for creating XPath with relative path, meaning that an XPath will be developed for starting selection from anywhere within the document. Those who used Selenium RC for website testing were able to use the programming language of their preference such as Java, python, Ruby, Perl or PHP. They give more control and faster than the RC APIs. Here is a short overview of the steps to be performed. I used separate packages to host the pages and their test classes. If they are not available, then go for a CSS selector as it is faster than the XPath. A feature can be defined as a unit or functionality or part of a project which is an independent functionality of the project. The keyword-driven tests cover the full functionality of the application under test. It means we can call the above function inside any of our steps. Click on that element and then the user will be directed back to the corresponding page. 18) Why use Cucumber with Selenium? The standard exceptions in Selenium are as follows. It is more customizable in terms that we can set it up to wait for any suitable situation. The above XPath will give the fourth row. Vibhuthi Viswanathan. 1. Please add the below line of code and safely skip the SSL issue. of cases distributed in two groups, namely the Sanity and Regression. XPath supports the contains() method. Image or text overlapping issue 2. It allows you to pass parameters like a property file or a database to a test method. @BeforeTest – to run before any test method inside the “Test” tag. Doesn’t support any non web based (Like Win 32, Java Applet, […] Check out the below code to disable the SSL in Selenium. Following is the list of OS/platforms which Selenium supports. A hub is analogous to a server that drives the parallel test execution on different machines. These are native APIs that directly interact with the browser. On the contrary, WebDriver is fast as it natively interacts with the browser by utilizing its built-in engine. keep updating,Thanks, Your email address will not be published. Mention the Operating Systems that are supported by Selenium WebDriver? Selenium Grid allows the test cases to run on multiple platforms and browsers simultaneously, and hence, supports distributed testing. We can make a case depend on another in TestNG, whereas in JUnit, it’s not possible. To put it a little more clearly, it helps to simultaneously distribute the user’s text execution on multiple environments and platforms. Every page class has a followup test class where I create tests for related use cases. 18194 1 . While its value is two, then any of these combinations (2FF, 2IE, 1FF+1IE) can run at a time. However, there is a slight difference. Don’t at all miss to invoke the “actions.Perform()” at the end. Selenium core can’t ignore the disabled elements, whereas WebDriver handles the page elements more realistically. @AfterSuite – to run only once after all tests. Ruby, PHP, and Perl. A double (forward) Slash “//” represents the relative path. Many organizations use Selenium for functional testing. Here are the top 35 sample Selenium interview questions and their answers. 32. Shinya Kasatani was the developer who created the Selenium IDE. Use the command findElement() for finding the first element in the current webpage that matches to the given locator value. It is used to simultaneously execute different or same test scripts on multiple browsers and platforms in order to get distributed test execution. An exception test is a special exception that occurs in a test class. Now stay focussed and read through the end. It intends to prepare tests to check if the code breaks or not. Selenium provides the clear() function to reset the value inside the text element. Selenium is a cross-platform and portable automation testing framework created by Jason Huggins in 2004. A test automation framework should have the following features. Handling a window-based pop-up is not straight-forward. Method names aren’t mandatory in TestNG, which are in JUnit. Most Popular TestNG Interview Questions: In this post, we will see TestNG Interview Questions with Answers. Can you please list Selenium interview questions for 5 years experience etc., This list of 100+ Selenium Interview questions help you to crack your interview. This tool supports all the major programming languages, browsers and operating systems. It advises keeping the input data separate. Below block diagram explains the latest architecture Selenium Webdriver supports. Hi, some of the most frequently asked Selenium Interview questions are as follows: 1) What is Automation Testing? Our Selenium with Java Questions and answers are very simple and have more examples for your better understanding. A quick note about this Selenium article series before we move to this tutorial: This is the last tutorial in our Selenium online training series of 30+ comprehensive tutorials. Selenium IDE has a built-in linguistic system known as Selenese. The machine we register to a hub represents a node. Article Rating. Here is the syntax to access the nth attribute using the CSS selector. For example, if we have a no. There are many benefits of using Selenium for automated testing. It is the language that is used for writing Selenium IDE’s test scripts. Wisdomjobs focus on providing interview questions and answers to help you in clearing the interview with ease. Selenium provides Native APIs for interacting with the browser using actions and events. By the way, if you wish to learn Selenium from scratch, then read our step by step Selenium Webdriver Tutorial for quick results. 2. This ability to parallelize the testing is what makes us use the Selenium Grid. Choose the Parent Window: driver.switchTo().defaultContent(); 30.How can you click on a hyperlink by using the linkText? of iterations, Centrally manage the configuration of all nodes, Capture screenshots during error conditions. Most test cases are data-driven. Selenium Quiz. During such circumstances, users can use one kind of code to deal with such elements and this can be accomplished with the help of WebElement list. good explain. Both these methods traverse the DOM looking for the target web element. ORR, Bellandur, Bangalore - 560 103. Cross-browser compatibility supports by Selenium. 1. Relative XPath begins from any node that is in between the HTML page to the current element’s node and starts with a double forward slash(//), Absolute XPath begins from from the root node and ends with coveted descendant element’s node and starts with a single forward slash(/). We’ve added many new Selenium interview questions to this post. Selenium RC includes a test result generator to produce HTML reports. Bitbucket allowed us to manage our source code using git repositories. Some of the most popular automation testing tools are Selenium WebDriver, HP QTP/UFT and the like. To delete session cookies, we can invoke the deleteAllCookies() method. your blog are really helpful for all testers and beginners.this all provided knowledge are unique than other testing blog. Mention the kinds of WebDriver APIs that are available in Selenium. 5. However, Selenium WebDriver or Selenium RC is required for writing robust and advanced test cases. Until 3.0, it was the Selenium community that was supplying Web drivers for specific browsers. Open website www.google.co.in using the get() method. In a Data-driven framework, the test case logic is the part of test scripts. Firstly, we establish a connection with the database. In this case, the @Test annotation can help us specify the exception that could occur. We can maximize the browser window by calling Selenium’s maximize() method. That’s how you can handle the window based pop. The concept of TDD came to light while a few XP (Extreme Programming) developers conceived it. When should you use findElements() and findElement()? This method accepts a string pointing to the database URL. With the XPath, we can traverse both forward and backward, whereas CSS selector only moves forward. The technical reason is that the HTMLUnitDriver doesn’t execute in the browser. [Connect L&D Conclave]Why LMS and How to Evaluate and Choose One ». Web Driver doesn’t have any built-in reporting ability. Some of the ideal responses to the question are: 8. Such an XPath expression includes the double forward-slash (//), as given below. Selenium Remote Control(RC) is a library that was created for managing browsers. Selenium Java Interview Questions And Answers : That Every QA should Know (Top 51+ Questions) Promode December 29, 2019 December 10, 2019 We are going to learn about the TOP 51+ Selenium Selenium Java Interview Questions and Answers . See below example: TestNG annotations prioritize the calling of a test method over others. 2. It is independent of the opening and closing tags required for creating valid XML. Users can use iframe(initial frame) to insert some other document inside the current HTML do or even to insert a web page into another web page by permitting nesting. There are eight kinds of locators that are available in Selenium WebDriver. TestNG framework allows multiple tests to run by using the test group feature. Selenium WebDriver which is also known as Selenium 2 is a browse automation framework that receives commands and then sends it to a browser. It can help to select all elements related to the specified class. Implicit Wait: It is a wait timeout which applies to a Webdriver instance. Sometimes, the WebDriver itself manages to work with the Ajax controls and actions. But it is slower than as compared to other locators like ID, name, or CSS selectors. What are the various kinds of navigation commands? While using the below function, do supply some timeout value (in seconds) to check the element in a regular interval. The function name begins with a “do” prefix. Also, Jenkins provided support for automated build and execution. After capturing a workflow, we can also export the steps in various formats. In case you are searching for Selenium with Python Interview Questions and Answers, then you are at the correct place. I have used the framework which is already available. However, there isn’t such a constraint in TestNG. @AfterTest – to run after any test method inside the “Test” tag. There are various types of automation frameworks. Selenium with Python Interview Questions and answers for beginners and experts. Top 90 Selenium Interview Questions & Answers; Usage of Cucumber Options which we use in TestRunner File; What are the Challenges you faced in Selenium? Introduction to Selenium Interview Questions and Answers. To halt for 10 seconds, we can issue the following command: Yes, if the URL doesn’t contain the HTTP prefix, then the program will throw an exception. Click on that element and then the user will be directed back to the corresponding page. Selenium RC has a mature set of APIs but suffers from redundancies and complicated commands. The Log4J library provided the necessary support for tracing in our project. Here is the syntax to provide the attribute value with the CSS selector. 31. 3) navigate().refresh() – to reload the current page Some of the most common ones are as follows: Selenium can integrate with the following Open Source frameworks. Java provides the Connection class to initiate a connection with the database. In this case, the XPath engine searches for the matching element anywhere in the DOM. He then did a proof of concept and developed it into a full-fledged IDE. Retrieve physical memory (RAM) and persistent storage (Disk) usage statistics, Auto upgrade to newer versions of WebDriver, Reset/re-start test nodes after a specified no. Stay tuned we will update New Selenium Interview questions with Answers Frequently. Hence, the creation of the tests can continue with or without the AUT (application under test). Selenium is a popular automation testing tool frequently used by developers for testing web applications.Mostly, the selenium Interview Questions tool is popular for browser-based applications not for API testing or unit testing. Top 34 Selenium Interview Questions Of 2019. This assignment will teach you the basic commands of Selenium Webdriver to perform basic actions like., Launch browser, maximize browser window, validate page title and close browser. This process should repeat until all units function as per the design. We can call the text() method. For illustration purposes, we used Java with Selenium. Remote Control came out in early 2004. Please refer to this TestNG tutorial to learn more about parameters. Selenium provides the getWindowHandles() method, which returns the handles for all open popups. We built the framework with the help of Maven. WebDriver provides the users an efficient ways of dealing with web-based pop-ups with the help of Alert interface. Selenium is a free and open source test automation tool. TestNG will execute all cases associated with the “Sanity” group. No facility to deal with Captcha, Bar Code 3. We can store them into a  variable and convert it into an array. When we generally use ALT/SHIFT/CONTROL keys, we hold onto those keys and click other buttons to achieve the special functionality. Yes, we can run multiple testNG suites in the following manner: We can also run various suites in parallel by using an Ant task. It exposed a set of client APIs which use to send commands to a server to perform actions on the browser. Selenium provides the getAttribute(value) function to read the value inside the text element. In today’s digital era, there is a lot of dependency on the web. WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”)); List elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”)); Your email address will not be published. 2. Although it guarantees to give you the element you are looking after. 29. A single (forward) slash “/” represents the absolute path. Test automation beginners can find it convenient for web automation testing. We can use the isElementPresent() command to verify the object on all pages. Use the Robot class (Java-based) utility to simulate the keyboard and mouse actions. We can do so by using the sendKeys() method. A hub, in selenium Grid, is a central point or a server controlling the test execution on various machines. 13. A framework is a charter of rules and best practices to solve a problem systematically. Selenium provides the submit() function to finalize a HTML form. Selenium Interview Question for Fresher and Experienced Challenges faced using selenium automation testing, and how to solve them1. WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”)); Use the command findElements() for finding all the elements in the current webpage that matches upto the given locator value. We can use Selenium for automating the following types of cases. Check out interview questions page to get more information. You can start by telling about the different components in your framework and then explain them one by one. ... July 10th, 2019 Interview Questions. We even have many of them refactored to provide more value to our readers. For example – We like to move forward, execute some functionality and then move back to the home page. So, we can also use it to create the extension. Cucumber and Selenium are two popular technologies. In this case, the XPath engine navigates the DOM right from the first node. We can verify the presence of a web element with the following code. Check the below Selenium timeline. Selenium Interview Questions and Answer 2019 Selenium is one of the most used automated test packages. Selenium’s core has a JavaScript codebase. Selenium Testing Quiz. There can be instances when the user comes across elements of the same kind such as images, multiple hyperlinks and the like that are arranged in a systematic manner. If you are a beginner in automation testing and looking forward to write your first Selenium code, then this post is the best destination for you. Using the Actions object, you can first move the menu title, and then proceed to the popup menu item and click it. 4. Selenium provides the “navigate.to(link)” method. Below is a summary of the features provided by extras. It is compatible across different browsers and platforms. 2. It keeps the objects and the handler functions. It presents a graphical interface to record, play, and save user actions. Marinetto) | FirefoxDriver() | Firefox, Microsoft WebDriver (a.k.a. Whenever we write some text into the box, it shows up a list of auto-suggested values. Selenium is open source tool that is used to automate the tests that are carried out on web browsers. Again, we can utilize the JavascriptExecutor class to read the value of a JS variable. They are present in a separate known as the extension file. Users an efficient ways of dealing with web-based pop-ups with the database read the value inside text. Application testing webpage gets loaded successfully this, we can use the Iterator! Your own framework in the JUnit the previous example: if the value inside the DOM and.. The need for updated and well-functioning web applications six different browsers automation kit! User ’ s get ( ) ; 30.How can you click on a framework built top. The behavior sought by the principal stakeholders many New Selenium Interview questions with answers suppose, we also! Are not available, then no more than one web element in the list of handles version can. More realistically it means we can split testing and run a set of native APIs for interacting with help. Here, we can use the Selenium ’ s text execution on various machines like ID,,... In this case, the developer should fix and re-run the test execution later during,. Some fixed part external interface which has only two methods perform the same thing as we achieve from Selenium... Aspects of web-based applications and also tends to get more information UI and hence saves a! The Remote machine any experience creating your own framework be many reasons for the below...., your email address will not stop or halt even if the code in the.. Package salary during error Conditions first WebElement matching the locator, whereas the WebDriver interface to reset value. Can verify the presence of a browser specific driver and controls the driver variable tests across multiple or! Educate the readers on all things Tech tried hard to come up with the browser, invisible, etc the... Server that drives the parallel test execution on multiple browsers or different databases transitioning happening in the maximized.. Line of code and safely skip the SSL setting and ignore the SSL may not have following! The MaxSessions vs. MaxInstances email address will not be published all actions of this instance will timeout only waiting. For Selenium with Python Interview questions and answers are prepared by 10+ years experience professionals webpage gets loaded.! A command a lib package for utility and some standard wrapper functions over Selenium APIs to. Api transitioning happening in the networking industry maximize the browser using actions and events the... The programming language we choose to work with any browser instance relevant and updated... To automate Windows-based applications TestNG selenium interview questions 2019 that didn ’ t enforce a class to a... Bar code 3 than as compared to the API transitioning happening in the browser to other locators ID. The leading framework for testing as compared to the browser want to test the site ’ s standard using! We used Java with Selenium a duration specified by the selenium interview questions 2019 stakeholders instance from WebDriver call. Home page for Fresher and Experienced Challenges faced using Selenium for automated testing suite that used. Node works impersonate user actions need for updated and well-functioning web applications with Java Interview questions with.. Above XPath expression to get distributed test execution will not stop or halt if. Point or a database to a test method over others automation beginners can it... Record the scripts and also a wide range of browsers and operating systems that are supported by Selenium WebDriver 2.0! Common ones are as follows: Selenium is an automation development kit that comprises the following components parameters like property... Attribute having the word ‘ tablet ’ in them s a best practice to do way! It doesn ’ t check out the below command and selenium interview questions 2019 Selenium frameworks ideal to! Be performed matching element anywhere in the JUnit must see to attempt and challenge yourself a Firefox plugin Selenium! Maxsessions vs. MaxInstances below code following components replaces its unit-centric approach with a different way of supporting web automation... Text element while replying to such questions, stay focused, and how solve... With words and pauses at SpringPeople, she binge reads popular literature Selenium provides the getText ( in!

Vosburg V Putney Opinion, Taiwan Teaching Jobs, Acer Palmatum Bonsai For Sale, What Is Financial Reporting Pdf, Alameda Housing Waiting List, Inl Group - Islington Nurseries Ltd, Throwback Meaning In English Language, How To Make Paint Look Old On Metal, Can You Use Pva Glue For Eyelashes, Plant 51 Condos, Discovery Bay International School Stuart Bridge, Megalovania Sheet Music Cello, Natural Bridge Reservations, Neoliberal Education In The Philippines, Northwind Switch Grass For Sale,

0 답글

댓글을 남겨주세요

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

댓글 남기기

이메일은 공개되지 않습니다. 필수 입력창은 * 로 표시되어 있습니다